In 2020 Dr Mike Sutton was deemed, by artificial intelligence and human experts to be in the top 100,000 most influential people in the history of the world (Here). He was also ranked 25th most influential criminal justice expert of all time as a World Influencer and, likewise, the 22nd most influential criminologist and the world's 32nd most influential expert on policing and 85th in law enforcement.
Mike Sutton was born in Orpington Kent in England in 1959. He attended Ramsden Infant and primary schools in Orpington Kent and West End Primary School, and then Wigan Road Secondary School in Ormskirk, Lancashire., Within 9 months he studied for and gained two A levels (Sociology and Economic History) at Wigan Technical College in Wigan. .
On leaving the University of Central Lancashire, Mike Sutton was for 14 years a senior criminologist (Research Officer and then Senior Research officer) at the British Home Office, Queen Anne's Gate. In 2001, he became Reader in Criminology at Nottingham Trent University, where he founded the 'Centre for Study and Reduction of Bias, Prejudice and Hate Crime.(archived here).
Mike Sutton is co-owner and joint founder of the Internet Journal of Criminology.
In 1999, Mike won, along with Dave Mann, the British Journal of Criminology Prize for their jointly published virtual ethnographic research on hackers, which was deemed to have made the most significant contribution to criminological knowledge in 1998-1999.
Mike is the originator of the Market Reduction Approach to Theft, the Supermyth concept and the IDD research method. In 2014, he used the Big Data-IDD method to find books, which bust the 155-year-old myth started by Darwin that no naturalist known to him had read Patrick Matthew's prior publication of the full theory of natural selection. Mike uniquely discovered seven naturalists had cited Matthew's book before 1858. Darwin knew four and three played major roles at the epicenter of influence on Darwin's pre-1858 work on natural selection.
|Nullius in Verba 200 page paperback, vol 1. 2017|
Prior to the publication of 'Nullius' as an e-book in 2014 by ThinkerMedia, and just before that publisher ceased business in December 2017, as vol.1 of three planned derived volumes in paperback in 2017, it was universally believed that Charles Darwin told the truth when he wrote in 1860 that apparently no naturalist had read the orignal ideas in Patrick Matthew's 1831 book, which contained the first full conception of the hypothesis of macroevolution by natural selection.
Nullius in Verba: Darwin's greatest secret is the hard-fact mythbusting book that re-wrote the history of the discovery of natural selection with new Big Data made discoveries of the once hidden books that reveal Darwin and Wallace actually knew several naturalists who really did read Patrick Matthew's prior publication of the full theory of natural selection - because, it is newly discovered, they cited it in published books and articles, years before Darwin and Wallace supposedly 'independently' replicated it in 1858 with, supposedly, no knowledge of what Matthew had discovered that their friends and influencers had read and actually cited in the literature before influencing them!
The 600 page detailed E-book Nullius is no longer available on Amazon.. Since it was hacked by Russians and is available for sale by copyright thieving criminals, on illegal pirate book sites worldwide, there are no current plans to re-publish it on Kindle.or any other e-book platform. The new (second edition) abridged and updated (2017) paperback (vol.1 of three or more planned volumes) is available on all Amazon sites worldwide e.g. UK (here) and USA (here) and can be obtained from all good book shops and any library.
In 2014, Using Big Data analysis and his own IDD research method, Mike established that it is now more likely than not that Darwin and Wallace committed the greatest science fraud in history by plagiarizing the work of Patrick Matthew. Moreover, Mike Sutton uniquely and originally 100 per cent proved that Darwin did commit lying, plagiarising science fraud by glory theft of Matthew's orignal ideas and his influence on other naturalists pre-1858 (read the facts here).
Mike commissioned the artist Gabriel woods to paint an allegorical analogy to explain to atheist biologists and other Darwinists why the new evidence means that, contrary to the 155 year old science myth, created by Darwin and parroted by credulous Darwinists ever since, other naturalists in fact not only read but also cited Matthew's book in the literature. Moreover, the painting reflects the fact that we now newly know that Darwin knew four of those naturalists and three of them played major roles at the epicenter of influence on Darwin's and Wallace's work on natural slection before 1858. The point of the painting is that it would be a miracle of immaculate cognitive conception - on par with the mythical miraculous supernatural divine conception of the Christian prophet Jesus of Nazareth by the Blessed St Mary - if Darwin and Wallace were gifted some kind of divine cognitive contraceptive to prevent those they knew - who they admitted influenced them - from influencing them with the unique ideas they each replicated that were uniquely in the book that their influences read before influencing them! Rationally, in light of the new data,discovered by Sutton, knowledge contamination seems far more probable then immaculate cognitive conception.
The British, Nottingham based, artist Gabriel Woods (May 2015) explains the essential rationale for his portrait "Immaculate Deception":
"The picture represents Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, who both claimed they each independently discovered the theory of natural selection with no prior knowledge of Patrick Matthew's earlier work. Patrick Matthew is represented in the allegorical painting as the infant."
More of Gabriel Woods' art can be found on his page on
You can read Mike's Amazon Books Author page
Mike also busted the Zombie Cop (100 yard) beat patrol myth. Mike bust the famous Spinach Myth, the Crime Opportunity Theory Myth, His game-changing work on busting the Routine Activities Theory notion of opportunity being a cause of crime has been positively cited in several scholarly text books and is in an encyclopedia of criminology (click here to find further details)
In April (Easter) 2015, Mike discovered the etymological origins in English of the terms Easter Bunny (Bunnie) and Easter eggs. He also discovered the apparent etymological origin of 'April fools' - suggesting fools errand pranks, originally, might have been played for the entire month. On October 31st. 2015, he discovered the first published use of the words Hallowe'en and Halloween. On 1st November 2015, Mike published the first full etymology of Guy Fawkes Night. Also in November 2015 he discovered who first coined the word Darwinist and in what context.
In 2013 Mike bust the Moral Panic (Creation) Myth , the Founded Founding Fathers Myth the Merton Myth and The Selfish Gene Myth.
Mike Discovered that: True Origin of the Word Nerd was in 1799. He discovered the true origin of 'Humpty Dumpty' ). Mike bust the myth that Darwin coined the term 'living fossil'. He discovered the true origin of the word "quiz". He found the first publication of the word 'okay.' Mike discovered 'the whole nine yards' supermyth and discovered the originator of the name and concept of the Peace Corps. Mike discovered the origin of the term 'comfort zone'.
In September 2016, Mike found the published use of the term "political honeymoon" dates back at least as far as 1866. And once again he beat the etymological experts at the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), by this time revealing that the publication of the term "social housing" dates back at least as far as 1913
In August 2016, Mike found better than 'smoking gun' evidence to disprove the myth that that the term and modern meaning of 'smoking gun' evidence originated from the Sherlock Holmes story, "The Adventure of the Gloria Scott" (1893). Sutton challenges the veracity of the story told by Cunningham that Berney Jr coined the word 'asteroid' for the Royal Society in 1861 because Sutton found it used for 273 years in over 100 books pre-1861. Sutton used Big Data research methods to discover the earliest (to date) use of the term Big Data in the contemporary meaning of the term. Mike also discovered that:
- Charles Dickens DID NOT coin the word 'boring'
- Sylvia Plath DID NOT coin the word 'dreamscape
- Sydney, Lady Morgan DID NOT coin the phrase 'accidentally on purpose'.
PLEASE NOTE: Some of the above myth busts, and many others, can be found in Sutton's FREE A-Z of Big Data Busted Myths - which is an interactive Thinker Media Inc. article published to allow others to provide the author with error and update information on its dynamic contents.
In January 2018 Mike conceived the notion of the Trunchbull Reflex ( #TrunchBullReflex) as an explanation for failure to believe atrocities and other outrageous behaviour
In January 2018 Mike conceived the notion of the Trunchbull Reflex ( #TrunchBullReflex) as an explanation for failure to believe atrocities and other outrageous behaviour
In October 2016 Mike employed his same IDD research method, that discovered long-neglected publications that debunk the expert 'knowledge-claim' that not a single naturalist read Patrick Matthew's full prior-published conception of the hypotheses of macroevolution by natural selection (Sutton 2014) before Darwin and Wallace penned a word on the topic. In October 2016 it detected a long neglected 1939 translation of the accounts of the Gild of St George at St Peter's Church in Nottingham. That book, a scholarly translation of the orignal medieval documents, builds upon the prior research of others (see Langley et al 2014) into the 15th century Hill v Hylton Court of Chancery case and how it provided a crucial lead towards the discovery of the grave of Richard III in a Leicester car park in 2012. The newly re-discovered self-published book found with IDD (Hodgkinson 1939) establishes that a past Sheriff of Nottingham (Ralph Hill) sued an acting Mayor of Nottingham (Walter Hylton). Both men were in the same gild (guild). That Nottingham gild lent them money to carry out work on the monument for Richard III's tomb. Moreover, rather than make a new monument (according to current knowledge claims) befitting a dead king, it looks like there is now a new historical document evidence-led possibility that such a monument existed already and Hylton was contracted to repair it rather than make the first one himself.
2. While researching the issue of such modern myths and their impact on policy making and practice, Mike created the Supermyth concept and the associated braced mythphrase as a supermyth sub-type.
3. He invented the Market Reduction Approach to theft. Mike is both the originator of the phrase and the concept known as the Market Reduction Approach (Sutton 1998). His original coining of the phrase and creation of the concept was applied to stolen goods markets in order to reduce theft.
4. Mike is the originator of the bad scholarship notion of dysology. The word itself existed before he thought it up independently (here). But its prior use suggests it may have been a possible typo - perhaps of dislogy. Mike thinks of disology as the 'science of discovery'.
5. Mike coined the phrase "The phrase is the concept" and is the originator of the concept that the phrase is the concept. He also coined the term "Tech-lag Turkey".
6. Mike was the first person to use the phrase 'Internet Dating' to mean using internet search engines to date the provenance of words, phrases and concepts ( a bit like virtual carbon dating). Using this technique he has busted myths about the origin of words, phrases and concepts including: Moral Panic, Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, The Founding Fathers and Black Markets and Bootlegging
7. In February 2013 using the Google search engine Mike 'discovered' The Original Google
8. On 29th July 2015 Mike coined the saying: "The wise man mocks the mocker. The mocker mocks man."
9, On February 9th 2016 Mike coined the word "cycligan" to describe adults who ride bicycles in pedestrian areas - especially pavements (side-walks). Here.
10. On 17th December 2008 Mike began developing the concept of punterization: punterized(also punterised) and punterization ( punterisation) as the dishing out (punterrization) - and awareness of being on the receiving end (punterised) of - dishonest or disingenuous treatment. Here.
Admitting that more research is needed, Mike thinks he may be the first to use the words punterized and punterization in this particular sense.
Mike certainly never coined the word punterization, which has been in very rare usage (perhaps of Australian origin) to mean such things as normalised - or else "sexed-up" to appeal to the general population here. And here as early as 2005.
In 2016 Mike came up with the notion of the 'Rifkin Imperative' to seek to explain why some offenders appear unable to resist bragging about exploits in cases where such bragging leads to their detection.
Mike Sutton is the originator of several unique hypotheses:
1. The Market Reduction Approach Hypothesis: Since most prolific thieves steal to sell and need to sell rapidly, reducing and making it more difficult and risky to deal in stolen goods markets will reduce the incidence of theft.
2. The Dysology Hypothesis: Letting scholars get away with publishing fallacies and myths signals to others the existence of topics where guardians of good scholarship might be less capable than elsewhere. Such dysology then serves as an allurement to poor scholars to disseminate existing myths and fallacies and to create and publish their own in these topic areas, which leads to a downward spiral of diminishing veracity on particular topics.
3. The Crime Substitution Hypothesis: Since the Routine Activities Theory (RAT) is a theory of how crime shifts and changes in relation to changes in society - and according to Felson and Boba (2010) the key to such changes is the technology of everyday life - then a significant amount of online activity and games console playing at home might be keeping people off the streets for significant periods every day and reducing the amount of hourly availability of victims and offenders in the offline world, while ensuring homes are occupied for more hours every day. If it is, and yet that is not responsible for the currently unfathomable 15 year decline in violent crime, car crime and burglary in the Western world then routine activities alone may be nothing like as a good an explanation for high volume crime as its adherents think it is. Of course, the 15 year crime drop in the offline world may be taking place in a direct inverse relationship with online offending such as fraud, stalking, virus spreading, hacking and copyright theft etc - which RAT would explain. This appears to be an important issue with huge implications for criminology and crime reduction policy making. Mike has published blog articles on this topic and two articles with his colleague Professor Mark Griffiths (1) Here (2) Here
4. The Frozen Donkey Hypothesis: If one encounters a frozen donkey in the road, standing, for all the world as though alive, no amount of reasoning, patience, impatient berating or rational cajoling will entice it to shift its position. The donkey is not merely being stubborn. Why not? Because it is bereft of life. The donkey can think no more, all mental faculties have ceased to be. The only solution is to go around it.Darwinisthistorians of science are behaving like frozen donkeys. Unable to adapt to a sudden change in their circumstances, they succumb to those circumstances. If they continue to do so they will be circumvented by scholars better able to adapt to the New Data. Once significantly circumvented, Darwinist historians of science will lose their power of occupancy in the literature on the topic of the discovery of natural selection. Once that happens they will shortly become intellectually extinct.
5. The April Fools Month Hypothesis: In 1678, in England, April Fools meant people being sent, as a joke, on a fools errand. And 20 years later the same meaning applied in London. I wonder if, historically, the shenanigans were carried on for the whole month of April? After all, only the month and no day is mentioned. If so, perhaps the lengthy entertainment period served some long forgotten social and economic purpose?
6.The Rotten Easter Eggs Hypothesis: In 16th Century Britain, it seems quite possible that the Easter egg arrived on these shores pre-named, or else was "christened", on independent invention or re-generation, with the sole sinister purpose as ammunition to throw at Catholic priests tied to crosses in public punishment spectacles in Scotland.
Those who the ID method in Google's Library reveals are apparently first to be second with apparently original words, terms or phrases more likely than not replicated them because they read them first in the apparently original source.
In absence of disconfirming evidence for the currently available evidence that Patrick Matthew (1831) originated (was first) to write and have published the Artificial Selection versus Natural Selection Analogy, when he wrote...:
'... in timber trees the opposite course has been pursued. The large growing varieties being so long of coming to produce seed, that many plantations are cut down before they reach this maturity, the small growing and weakly varieties, known by early and extreme seeding, have been continually selected as reproductive stock, from the ease and conveniency with which their seed could be procured; and the husks of several kinds of these invariably kiln-dried, in order that the seeds might be the more easily extracted. May we, then, wonder that our plantations are occupied by a sickly short-lived puny race, incapable of supporting existence in situations where their own kind had formerly flourished—particularly evinced in the genus Pinus,more particularly in the species Scots Fir; so much inferior to those of Nature's own rearing, where only the stronger, more hardy, soil-suited varieties can struggle forward to maturity and reproduction?
We say that the rural economist should pay as much regard to the breed or particular variety of his forest trees, as he does to that of his live stock of horses, cows, and sheep. That nurserymen should attest the variety of their timber plants, sowing no seeds but those gathered from the largest, most healthy, and luxuriant growing trees..'
‘The use of the infinite seedling varieties in the families of plants, even in those in a state of nature, differing in luxuriance of growth and local adaptation, seems to be to give one individual (the strongest best circumstance-suited) superiority over others of its kind around, that it may, by overtopping and smothering them, procure room for full extension, and thus affording, at the same time, a continual selection of the strongest, best circumstance suited for reproduction. Man’s interference, by preventing this natural process of selection among plants, independent of the wider range of circumstances to which he introduces them, has increased the difference in varieties, particularly in the more domesticated kinds…’
...then I propose that Patrick Matthew (1831) was not only first to originate and have published the full hypothesis of natural selection, but that he also originated (was first to publish) the Artificial Selection versus Natural Selection Analogy of Differences, which has been missed by Darwinists until I wrote about it on PatrickMatthew.com, because the majority of them are biologists, and biologists, as a disciplinary group, are unique in that they believe analogies must explain only similarities. In originating this powerfully simple analogy of differences between natural and artificial selection, which was later replicated by both Darwin and Wallace to explain the complexities natural selection, Matthew originated an explanation that changed the world, because - it is newly discovered (Sutton 2014) his book was read and cited pre-1858 by several naturalists who Darwin and Wallace admitted were their major influencers on the topic of varieties and species and organic evolution. This is:The Matthew Man’s Interference Analogy Hypothesis”.
Dr Michael "Mike" Sutton is Reader in Criminology at Nottingham Trent University (UK), where he teaches Hi Tech Crime and also Crime Reduction and Community Safety. He is Founding Director of the Nottingham Center of Excellence for the Study and Reduction of Bias, Prejudice and Hate Crimes. He is Director of Studies for several Ph.D students at any one time and, as Director of Studies, he has successfully supervised a number of students to successful completion. Several of Mike's ex-doctoral students are now successfully employed as academic criminologists in various universities.
Mike Sutton served terms of office as External Examiner for Forensic Criminology at Sheffield Hallam University (UK).and Criminology ar Birmingham City University
Mike is the originator of the Market Reduction Approach (MRA) to theft and co-founder and Chief Editor of the innovative, dual 100 per cent open access, Internet Journal of Criminology. He is a winner of the British Journal of Criminology Prize for virtual ethnographic research into a pan-European hacking group - judged to have "...most significantly contributed to the knowledge and understanding of criminology and criminal justice issues' in 1998/99.
Mike recently published a US Government Department of Justice international COPS Office guide for policing stolen goods markets .
- See all Mike's Publications
- See Mike's Citation Scores
- The Internet Journal of Criminology
- Visit Mike's cyberplace Dysology.com
- Visit Mike's site Dysology.org
- Read Mike's Supermyths blog
- Read Mike's Crime Blog
- Follow Mike@Criminotweet on Twitter
- Follow Mike@Dysology on Twitter
- Follow Mike@Supermythbuster on Twitter
- Mike's Google+ profile page (google.com/+MikeSutton)
- Mike's Facebook Page
- Mike's University profile (NTU)
- Mike's Linked[In] profle
- Mike's Academia.edu profile
- Dysology Conference Style Discussion Group
- Wikipedia page on Mike
- Wikipedia page on the MRA
- Mike's Reviews of Books on Amazon
- Mike is a member of the Daily Journalist Club
What is the MRA?
The first systematic study of the various ways that stolen goods are stored, sold and bought - going beyond the previous focus upon the guilty mind and level of involvement of dealers and consumers - was conducted by Mike Sutton who created a fivefold market typology based on his in-depth interviews with expert prolific thieves, inexperienced thieves, fences, drug dealers and stolen goods consumers. In 1998, the UK Home Office published Sutton's report proposing a systematic framework for researching and tackling local stolen goods markets. This is the Market Reduction Approach (MRA) for tackling theft.
International Recognition and International Policy Impact
Sutton's MRA is currently recommended good crime reduction and policing practice on websites hosted by the US Government's Depart of Justice ( see here, and here) the British Government's Home Office (see page 9 here) and several examples of his published work are stored in the UK National Archive. His MRA is also recommended by the Australian Government's Institute of Criminology (here), and New Zealand's Ministry of Justice (here and here).
Mike worked for 14 years as Senior Research Officer (criminology) in the UK Government's Home Office where he conducted research on fines, evaluated the Safer Cities Programme and conducted and published his first research on hi tech crime and stolen goods markets. Mike is currently employed full time in a senior academic position. Disclaimer: Dr Mike Sutton's views and work on Best Thinking - on his website Dysology.org and all associated blog and web sites - are his own and do not reflect those of his employer or his publishing company Flashmouse Publishing and its subsidiary: New University Press.
Sutton has numerous scholarly publications in the field of hate crimes, bias and prejudice, including a mythbusting UK Government report and guide on the best use of media in reducing ‘racial’ prejudice. What Sutton discovered, during the time he was working on this project, about the effect of bias on racism, and the effect of bias on efforts to tackle it, led him to look in more depth at the issue of bias in all fields, particularly in understanding more about how myths are created, reinforced and disseminated. Sutton is particularly interested in understanding how knowledge about the dynamic life of myths might be utilised in developing the strangely neglected field of how best to tackle them. This is an area that he calls dysology studies. Lessons learned in this field may well be useful for reducing, hate crimes of all kinds, cultural, religious, and ethnic prejudices as well as all areas where it is important that veracity is maintained in the public interest – such as in all areas of science and medicine.
Wikipedia covers some of his published and peer-to-peer highlights: Here and here. With reference to his earlier mythbusting on spinach, iron and Popeye, click here. However, Mike's very latest work on that topic can be found by clicking here.
In 2010 Sutton engaged in some myth-busting research in the field of nutrition and bio-chemistry that led to the discovery of the sociological concept of Braced Myths. This work led to him classifying certain types of myth as supermyths. In 2012 he identified two criminological Supermyth sub-types classified as braced myths regarding beat policing. Mike is keen to learn of any further examples of supermyths from any field of knowledge.Mike can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org
A Notable Alumnus
Sutton is recognised as a notable alumnus of the University of Central Lancashire (UCL). His Alma Mater uses its connection with him as one of its graduates and post-graduates, and his later published work, as a prestige indicator in its overseas promotions (e.g.: here). He was, in 1987, the first person to be awarded a non natural sciences PhD at UCL.
Peer Review Activities
Mike is regularly called upon to perform scholarly review duties. He has peer reviewed papers, articles, research reports and research applications from numerous organisations and journals including: The Economic and Social Research Council, The Rand Co-operation, The US Department of Justice, The AXA Research Fund, the British Home Office, the British Journal of Criminology, The Journal of Crime and Justice, Criminology and Public Policy, and the Security Journal
DETAILED EVIDENCE OF THE INFLUENCE OF SUTTON'S WORK ON POLICY FROM 1990-2011.
By Mike Sutton
Evidence of Policy Impact of my research
I am the originator of the Market Reduction Approach to theft (MRA), and my research in this area has, for more than a decade, influenced government policy advice and policy making in Britain and elsewhere. Several British police forces have sought to reduce theft with the MRA.
In 1999, the MRA was implemented for the first time when Kent Constabulary sought to use it in itsOperation Radiumto reduce high levels of burglary and other theft in the Medway Towns of Rochester, Chatham, Gillingham, Rainham and Strood, which were given the collective pseudonym South Town (Home Office 2004). This initiative led to the passing of several local Acts of Parliament throughout England to regulate trade in second hand goods, with an aim to reduce Supply by Theft (Sutton 1995) including the Kent Acts(2001) and the Nottingham City Council Act (2003).
The MRA was mentioned at National Government level, along with my work in Parliamentary debate (Hansard 2000) and the Kent Acts later in Parliamentary Business (Hansard 2004). In 1999, the British Home Office funded the implementation of the MRA in three police forces: Kent, West Mercia and Stockport in Greater Manchester (Home Office 2006), followed by a Government funded evaluation by the University of Kent of the implementation and impact of the MRA in Kent and Greater Manchester (Harris, Hale and Uglow 2003; Hale et al (2004).
Other MRA schemes have been implemented in Britain in Nottinghamshire and Derby City constabularies. In 2011, the MRA was defined as a core policing core practice and as a performance indicator by Nottinghamshire Constabulary and the City’s Crime Reduction Partnership. I continue to publish in the area of tackling stolen goods markets (e.g. Sutton 2010) and advise police at local, national and international levels. I occasionally act as an unpaid ad-hoc informal ‘skeptical friend’ (academic adviser) for various police forces through meetings, email and telephone conversations. In 2011, I addressed a British audience of chief police officers through the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO National Burglary Reduction Working Group) on the subject of the MRA and the importance of veracity to inform policy in policing and crime reduction (7/9/2011).
Although the MRA has been promoted as ‘good practice’ by the British Government and has been used by several police forces, it has not proved possible to evaluate its impact in reducing crime due to a number of factors, not least the extent of confounding variables that impact upon crime rates at both the local and national level. Despite lack of evidence of its effectiveness in reducing crime, the UK Government, US Government, Australian Government and New Zealand Government (somewhat surprisingly) promote it as good ‘effective’ policing and general crime reduction practice:
- UK Government Website promoting my MRA See page 9 USA Government’s Department of Justice COPS programme international problem-oriented Practitioners policing guide for tackling stolen goods marketsto reduce theft
- US Department of Justice also added my Home Office MRA guide to its website and an influential briefing note.
- My report on tackling stolen goods markets is also recommended reading in US Department of Justice “Mayors’ Guide to effective policing and crime prevention.
- Australian Government’s Institute of Criminology
- New Zealand Ministry of Justice and also here.
Wider Influence of my MRA on Criminology
The MRA has been quite widely cited in the literature on crime reduction by criminologists including Marcus Felson and Ronald Clarke (See Wikipedia 2011; 2011a; 2011b for a reasonably comprehensive list). Here are just a few examples of how the MRA has influenced and/or been cited as important research in other areas beyond the theft of high volume consumer goods:
Wildlife crime and endangered species
- Schneider JL. (2008) ‘Reducing the Illicit Trade in Wildlife: The Market Reduction Approach’. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 24:274–95: And here.
- Trafficking in Ivory: Lemieux, A.M. and Clarke, R.V. (2009) The International Ban on Ivory Sales and its Effects on Elephant Poaching in Africa. British Journal of Criminology. Vol. 49.
Trafficking in people
- Reduce human trafficking: Organisation of Security and Co-operation in Europe Report (e.g. see page 1) Combatting Trafficking in Humans: Organisation of Security and Co-operation in Europe Report (e.g. see page 1)
Art and Cultural artefact crime
- Theft and Trafficking of Art and Cultural Artefacts: Manacorda, S. and Chappell, D. (eds.) (2011) Crime in the Art and Antiques World: Illegal Trafficking in Cultural Property. New York. Springer.
I was interviewed by Adam Raphael - the top editor and journalist whose evidence led to Lord Jeffrey Archer's imprisonment for perjury for an important article in The Economist on my MRA to tackling theft, entitled "Sitting on the Fence" (The Economist 1998).
Some Examples of the Impact of My Other Work on Crime Reduction and Bias and Prejudice Reduction Policy Guidance and Policy Making
- Publication of Sutton, M. Perry, B. Parke J. and John-Baptiste, C. (2007) Getting the Message Across: Using media to reduce ‘racial’ prejudice. Department of Communities and Local Government. London. (Peer reviewed national government research report). Led to speaking engagement with National and local government representatives and members of anti-racism organisations: where I was Keynote speaker at a forum held in Scotland and funded by the Glasgow Anti-Racist Alliance (GARA). Subsequently, the Getting the Message Across report also used in a Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights submission to the Council of Europe Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.
- Newcastle City Council relied upon the Getting the Message Across report to shape its policy making .
On 26 August 2011, The Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights (formerly known as the Glasgow Anti Racist Alliance) sent a written submission to the Scottish Parliament’s Justice Committee regarding the Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland). Bill. The submission informed Parliament of the dangers of implementing uninformed racism reductions measures that are likely to backfire and make the problem worse. The submission cited the myth busting research contained within the ‘Getting the Message Across’ report (Sutton et al 2007). Policy making advice within the ‘Getting the Message Across’ report inspired the Glasgow Anti Racist Alliance (Now Coalition for Racial Equality and Human Rights - CREHR) to successfully apply for funding to test its recommendations. They wrote:
"The project was funded by the Equality and Human Rights Commission and used recommendations from the Communities and Local Government report “Getting the message across: using media to reduce racial prejudice and discrimination” (Sutton et al., 2007) as impetus to undertake a local research project.”
US Government Office of Justice
Click on ‘evidence base’ and ‘additional references’ at the end of the section in the report link given below to see how work I conducted in 1996 is used to construct a current US Office of Justice effective solutions guide . These sources were used in the development of the program profile, which lists: (1) Ekblom, P., Law, H. and Sutton, M. with assistance from Paul Crisp and Richard Wiggins. (1996). Safer Cities and Domestic Burglary. Home Office Research Study 164. London, England: Home Office; and (2) Sutton, M. (1996). Implementing Crime Prevention Schemes in a Multiagency Setting: Aspects of Process in the Safer Cities Programme. London, England: Home Office.
The US Government Office of Justice currently publishes a series of abstracts on my work. E.g.:
My Research Reports in the UK National Archive
Several of my policy oriented research reports have been placed in the UK Government’s National Archive Collection. These include:
Hansard (2000). 1803-2005. 17th May. Kent County Council Bill (Lords) Commons Sitting – orders of the day. Vol. 350 cc.388-418. See also an extended debate in the House of Commons.
Hansard (2004) Written Answers. Bound Volume. Parliamentary Business. May 13, 2004. Column 573W—continued: Stolen Goods.
Harris, C. Hale, C and Uglow, S. (2003) Implementing a Market Reduction Approach to Property Crime. In: Tilley, N. and Bullock, K., (eds). Crime Reduction and Problem Oriented Policing. Devon, Willan.
Hale, C. Harris, C. Uglow, S. Gilling. L and Netten, A. (2004). Targeting the markets for stolen goods: two targeted policing initiative projects. Home Office Development and Practice Report 17.
Home Office (2004) Secure Design. Targeting the Markets for Stolen Goods: Two targeted policing initiative projects.
The National Archive: Home Office (2006) Tackling Burglary: Market Reduction Approach. Crime Reduction. The National Archive.
National Deviancy Conference (2011) Sutton, M, Hamilton, P., and Hodgson, P. The Problem of Zombie Cops in Voodoo Criminology. National Deviancy Conference York. July/Aug.
Nottingham City Council Act (2003) Sutton, M. (1995) Supply by Theft: does the market for second-hand goods play a role in keeping crime figures high? British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 38, No 3, Summer.
Sutton, M. (2010) Stolen Goods Markets. Problem Oriented Policing Guide No. 57. U.S.A. Department of Justice COPS Programme. (Peer reviewed international policing guide.
Sutton, M. Perry, B. Parke J. and John-Baptiste, C. (2007) Getting the Message Across: Using media to reduce ‘racial’ prejudice. Department of Communities and Local Government. London. (Peer reviewed national government research report). http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/communities/pdf/611667.pdf
The Kent Acts (2001). A Case for National Legislation: Report to the Secretary of State in compliance with section 20 (1) of the Kent County Council Act 2001 and section 20 (1) of the Medway Council Act 2001
Wikipedia (2011) The Market Reduction Approach.
Wikipedia (2011a) Criminology.
Wikipedia (2011b) Mike Sutton (criminologist)
Video on the importance of stolen goods markets
Personal Narrative Statement on My Research
My work on stolen goods markets and the Market Reduction Approach (MRA) to theft is internationally recognised. The MRA continues to have an impact on policy making, policy advice and policing. I remain active in this area having recently completed a US Department of Justice policing guide on the subject. The MRA is based upon a combination of quantitative research (National Crime Survey – question design and analysis) and qualitative (in-depth semi-structured interviews with prolific thieves).
I became interested in the impact of fallacies, myths and bad data on policy making after discovering the extent to which crime and prejudice reduction media campaigns ignore psychological research knowledge on attitude change (Sutton et al 2007). Subsequently, when fact checking a famous example of the impact of bad data on policy making, I discovered a social phenomenon that I named a braced myth (Sutton 2010; 2010a).
A myth is braced when orthodox experts, with unintended irony, use it unwittingly to seek to debunk another myth.
During a review of the literature on policing I discovered a braced myth that is being used to help underpin what appears to be a criminological knowledge consensus that foot patrol beat policing is ineffective at preventing crime and detecting offenders. In effect, this myth (the Police Patrol 100 Yard Myth) is being deployed to debunk the myth that foot patrol beat policing is the most effective way to deal with crime. My presented a paper on this subject at the National Deviancy Conference (2011) and we have written a jointly auhtored academic paper on the subject for peer review.
Most recently, unless a logical refutation can be made, I believe, that I have busted another criminological myth. Namely the widely believed notion that opportunity is a cause of crime. This is a criminological myth because the criminological notion of opportunity (unlike the commonly accepted dictionary definitions) is based on a truism and five fallacies (Sutton 2012). Publication of this work will appear in the scholarly peer reviewed literature in the near future.
My work in this area has led me now to the position where I wish to focus some degree of my future research towards developing knowledge in the wider area of general scholarly and policy-oriented bias, myths and fallacies. Stakeholders for this research will include the criminological academic community, relevant government bodies, the police, statutory local authorities, charitable bodies, different academic disciplines, multi-disciplinary areas and the wider general public.
References for some selected publications in this area
Sutton, M. (2010) Spinach, Iron and Popeye: Ironic lessons from biochemistry and history on the importance of healthy eating, healthy scepticism and adequate citation. IJC Primary Research Paper. http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Sutton_Spinach_Iron_and_Popeye_March_2010.pdf
Sutton, M. (2010a) The Spinach, Popeye, Iron, Decimal Error Myth is Finally Busted. Best Thinking. http://www.bestthinking.com/articles/science/chemistry/biochemistry/the-spinach-popeye-iron-decimal-error-myth-is-finally-busted
Sutton, M. Perry, B. Parke J. and John-Baptiste, C. (2007) Getting the Message Across: Using media to reduce ‘racial’ prejudice. Department of Communities and Local Government. London. (Peer reviewed national government research